On occasion, those on prescription drugs may unintentionally combine materials. They might have a few glasses of wine without recognizing that their prescription drugs shouldn’t be combined with alcohol, or they may be on multiple prescriptions from different doctors, not realizing that these drugs interact negatively with one another. Because of this, individuals should always notify every physician of every medication they’re taking and confirm that drugs don’t interact negatively with each other or alcohol before starting a new prescription.
Polydrug use includes the ingestion of more than 1 drug at once. Although polysubstance abuse frequently refers to misuse of multiple illegal drugs, it’s also inclusive of prescription drugs used in nonmedical conditions.
Polymorphisms of genes encoding a variety of enzymes that metabolize drugs, including drugs of abuse, also give rise to toxicity or drug dependence. By way of instance, certain polymorphisms in genes encoding serum butyrylcholinesterase may increase susceptibility of someone to crack cocaine dependence. Nevertheless, along with these genetic elements, polymorphisms of genes encoding different brain receptors, transporters, and enzymes associated with metabolism of neurotransmitter can also render a person more prone to alcohol and/or drug misuse. But, no single gene has been identified that is connected to alcohol and/or drug misuse.
Particular short-term and long-term effects associated with polysubstance abuse will differ according to the specific mixture of substancesnonetheless, there are a number of general risks associated with polysubstance abuse.
Greater severity of side effects: All medications include the possibility of negative side effects. When chemicals are abused collectively, the potential seriousness of the side effects is increased exponentially. It was’t as easy as adding up the different effects of each substance; rather, the compounds combine to cause addictive effects, and these effects tend to be unique and much more severe than the separate effects of each medication.
Alcohol and drug dependence are psychiatric disorders related to maladaptive behaviors, in which a person has persistent compulsive and uncontrolled use of alcohol or a drug. Moreover, alcohol abuse is frequently associated with poly drug misuse. The genetic makeup of someone and ecological factors make a person more prone to alcohol or drug abuse. The human genome includes 3.2 billion nucleotides of DNA . The majority of the genetic polymorphisms are single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and it’s been estimated that more than 11 million SNPs occur in the human genome using a frequency of greater than 1 percent (when a polymorphism occurs at a frequency less than 1% it’s considered rare but if it happens at a frequency of greater than 1 percent it’s called polymorphic). Though SNPs are the most common genetic variant, other variants including deletion, insertion, and reproduction, also occur.
A genetic variation leads to an altered expression and function of a protein that might be linked to benefit from abused or alcohol drugs and consequently may be linked to alcohol or drug dependence. Family, twin, and linkage studies can provide advice regarding a possible association between a phenotype and dependence. Genome-wide linkage studies can identify the location of the genome that’s associated with the specific phenotype. Additionally, polymorphisms in genes that encode various enzymes responsible for alcohol and drug metabolism contribute to toxicity in addition to alcohol/drug addiction. It’s recognized that polymorphisms of genes encoding enzymes that are responsible for metabolism of alcohol (alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase) may protect someone from alcohol dependence or might increase the risk of alcohol dependence (based on the specific polymorphism).